The only time that songwriters should react to stuff that’s going on…. is when they’re absolutely moved to do so, when it just smacks them in the face and they gotta react. I don’t think you should go out and look for causes in order to have a cause or because it’s hip this week. I think the only time that it’s legitimate is when an event goes down like Kent State where…. we were at odds in this country at that moment, there’s no question.
- David Crosby, 1981

“Ohio”

Tin soldiers and Nixon coming,
We’re finally on our own.
This summer I hear the drumming,
Four dead in Ohio.

Gotta get down to it
Soldiers are cutting us down
Should have been done long ago.
What if you knew her
And found her dead on the ground
How can you run when you know?

Gotta get down to it
Soldiers are cutting us down
Should have been done long ago.
What if you knew her
And found her dead on the ground
How can you run when you know?

Tin soldiers and Nixon coming,
We’re finally on our own.
This summer I hear the drumming,
Four dead in Ohio.

“Talkin’ Bout A Revolution”

Don’t you know
They’re talkin’ bout a revolution
It sounds like a whisper
Don’t you know
They’re talkin’ about a revolution
It sounds like a whisper

While they’re standing in the welfare lines
Crying at the doorsteps of those armies of salvation
Wasting time in the unemployment lines
Sitting around waiting for a promotion

Poor people gonna rise up
And get their share
Poor people gonna rise up
And take what’s theirs

Don’t you know
You better run, run, run…
Oh I said you better Run, run, run…
Finally the tables are starting to turn
Talkin’ bout a revolution

“The Ghost Of Tom Joad”

 

Men walkin’ ‘long the railroad tracks
Goin’ someplace there’s no goin’ back
Highway patrol choppers comin’ up over the ridge
Hot soup on a campfire under the bridge

Shelter line stretchin’ ’round the corner
Welcome to the new world order
Families sleepin’ in their cars in the Southwest
No home no job no peace no rest

The highway is alive tonight
But nobody’s kiddin’ nobody about where it goes
I’m sittin’ down here in the campfire light
Searchin’ for the ghost of Tom Joad

He pulls a prayer book out of his sleeping bag
Preacher lights up a butt and takes a drag
Waitin’ for when the last shall be first and the first shall be last
In a cardboard box ‘neath the underpass

Got a one-way ticket to the promised land
You got a hole in your belly and gun in your hand
Sleeping on a pillow of solid rock
Bathin’ in the city aqueduct

The highway is alive tonight
Where it’s headed everybody knows
I’m sittin’ down here in the campfire light
Waitin’ on the ghost of Tom Joad

Now Tom said “Mom, wherever there’s a cop beatin’ a guy
Wherever a hungry newborn baby cries
Where there’s a fight ‘gainst the blood and hatred in the air
Look for me Mom I’ll be there

Wherever there’s somebody fightin’ for a place to stand
Or decent job or a helpin’ hand
Wherever somebody’s strugglin’ to be free
Look in their eyes Mom you’ll see me.”

Well the highway is alive tonight
But nobody’s kiddin’ nobody about where it goes
I’m sittin’ down here in the campfire light
With the ghost of old Tom Joad

 

 

“Blowin’ In The Wind”

How many roads must a man walk down
Before you call him a man?
How many seas must a white dove sail
Before she sleeps in the sand?
Yes, how many times must the cannon balls fly
Before they’re forever banned?
The answer my friend is blowin’ in the wind
The answer is blowin’ in the wind.

Yes, how many years can a mountain exist
Before it’s washed to the sea?
Yes, how many years can some people exist
Before they’re allowed to be free?
Yes, how many times can a man turn his head
Pretending he just doesn’t see?
The answer my friend is blowin’ in the wind
The answer is blowin’ in the wind.

Yes, how many times must a man look up
Before he can really see the sky?
Yes, how many ears must one man have
Before he can hear people cry?
Yes, how many deaths will it take till he knows
That too many people have died?
The answer my friend is blowin’ in the wind
The answer is blowin’ in the wind.

 

 

 

Just The Way It Is

Standin’ in line marking time
Waiting for the welfare dime
‘Cause they can’t buy a job
The man in the silk suit hurries by
As he catches the poor old lady’s eyes
Just for fun he says, ‘Get a job’

That’s just the way it is
Some things’ll never change
That’s just the way it is
Ha, but don’t you believe them
Said, ‘Hey little boy you can’t go
Where the others go
Cause you don’t look like they do’
Said, ‘Hey, old man how can you stand
To think that way
Did you really think about it
Before you made the rules?’
He said, ‘Son

That’s just the way it is
Some things’ll never change
That’s just the way it is’
Ha, but don’t you believe them

Ooo, yeah (instrumental)

(That’s just the way it is)
(That’s just the way it is)

Well, they passed a law in ’64
To give those who ain’t got, a little more
But it only goes so far
‘Cause the law don’t change another’s mind
When all it sees at the hiring time
Is the line on the color bar
But who knows

That’s just the way it is
Some things’ll never change (right)
That’s just the way it is
That’s just they way it is, it is, when you’re waiting.

 

“All Along The Watchtower”

“There must be some kind of way out of here, “
Said the joker to the thief,
“There’s too much confusion, I can’t get no relief.
Business men – they drink my wine
Plowmen dig my earth
None will level on the line
Nobody of it is worth.”

“No reason to get excited, “
The thief – he kindly spoke,
“There are many here among us
Who feel that life is but a joke
But you and I we’ve been through that
And this is not our fate
So let us not talk falsely now
The hour’s getting late.”

All along the watchtower
Princess kept the view
While all the women came
And went bare-foot servants too
Outside in the cold distance
A wild cat did growl
Two riders were approaching
And the wind began to howl, hey.

 

Betty’s Diner (the first musical cut on the above video)

Miranda works the late night counter
In a joint called Betty’s Diner
Chrome and checkered tablecloths
One steamy windowpane

She got the job that shaky fall
And after hours she’ll write till dawn
With a nod and smile she serves them all

Here we are all in one place
The wants and wounds of the human race
Despair and hope sit face to face
When you come in from the cold

Let her fill your cup with something kind
Eggs and toast like bread and wine
She’s heard it all so she don’t mind

Arthur lets his earl gray steep
Since April it’s been hard to sleep
You know they tried most everything
Yet it took her in the end

Kevin tests new saxophones
But swears he’s leaving quality control
For the Chicago scene, or New Orleans
Where they still play righteous horns

Here we are all in one place
The wants and wounds of the human race
Despair and hope sit face to face
When you come in from the cold

Let her fill your cup with something kind
Eggs and toast like bread and wine
She’s heard it all so she don’t mind

Jack studies here after work
To get past high school he’s the first
And his large hands seem just as comfortable
With a hammer or a pen

Emma leaned and kissed his cheek
And when she did his knees got weak
Miranda smiles at ‘em and winks

Here we are all in one place
The wants and wounds of the human race
Despair and hope sit face to face
When you come in from the cold

Let her fill your cup with something kind
Eggs and toast like bread and wine
She’s heard it all so she don’t mind

You never know who’ll be your witness
You never know who grants forgiveness
Look to heaven or sit with us

Deidre bites her lip and frowns
She works the stop and go downtown
She’s pretty good at the crossword page
And she paints her eyes blue black

Tristan comes along sometimes
Small for his age and he’s barely five
But she loves him like a mama lion

Veda used to drink a lot
Almost lost it all before she stopped
Comes in at night with her friend Mike
Who runs the crisis line

Michael toured Saigon and back
Hair the color of smoke and ash
Their heads are bowed and hands are clasped
One more storm has passed

Here we are all in one place
The wants and wounds of the human race
Despair and hope sit face to face
When you come in from the cold

Let her fill your cup with something kind
Eggs and toast like bread and wine
She’s heard it all so she don’t mind

 

Faithful Rebel: Songwriter Carrie Newcomer on A Permeable Life

Carrie_Newcomer_Before_and_After_guitar_case“When you live a permeable life, you’re making a deal with the universe that I will be here and I will be present and I will take in the world,” Carrie reflected with me over the phone last week. I say her name plainly but this is Carrie Newcomer, folk singer and songwriter, who on April 1st is officially releasing her fifteenth studio album, A Permeable Life, and – for the first time – a book of poems and essays with the same name to accompany it.

Songwriting, like a permeable life, requires the practice of attention, says Carrie, and the choice to show up as your true self in the world. Even after just a few moments of spotty cell coverage, me in my Durham office and Carrie in her home in the Indiana woods, it’s clear that this woman practices what she preaches. Her speaking voice is as kind and slow as her singing voice is deep and wise. I decide to count my conversation with her as my spiritual practice for the day. She’s that good for the soul.

I’m a fairly new fan to Newcomer’s music. I met her for the first time last August at our annual Habits of the Hearts for Healthy Congregations retreat with Parker Palmer where she shared her music with a group of over 100 clergy and faith leaders and shared her life in quiet conversations played out over mealtime. I remember asking her about dogs, and whether Rush and I should get a second one. I worried we couldn’t love another with the kind of teeth-clenching intensity we felt for our red-headed mutt Amelia. “Love is not like a pie where there are only so many pieces to go around,” she said. “With every dog, or every child, you just get more pie. There is always more love available to us.”

With that same bent toward simplicity, she set out to create her latest album. Her voice quickens for a brief moment as she divulges the collaborative process with producer Paul Mahern and a handful of talented musicians, many under thirty. “There is simplicity when you don’t know what else to do and then there is simplicity when you can play all sorts of notes and say all sorts of things but you don’t. It’s elegant, myself and all the musicians, it’s a very ego-less kind of playing.” These are true enough words for a musician as they are a writer or a preacher. Two kinds of simplicity – the one that comes out in your first draft, lazy in its pomp and wordiness, and the one that finds you on the other side of time. It’s after the throat-clearing quotes and meaningless jargon disappear that what you’ve been trying to say all along becomes clear.

I listen to Carrie’s music when I need to de-clutter my mind. I put her music on when I do yoga in the sun room; sometimes Amelia comes in and does a downward dog under the bridge of my downward dog and I collapse over the mystery. I put her music in my CD player when I’m driving to church on Sunday nights and mustering the courage of true self. Carrie is by no means a “Christian artist.” She says, “Theologically you get the eight crayon box in the Christian music world; theologically I’m the 48 crayon kind of girl. There are beautiful things than can be created with the 8 crayons but at the same time, there’s a hunger and longing for music and story and dance and art forms that lean into the spiritual, that is looking for new language.”

I ask Carrie about her spiritual heritage; I tell her I suspect she’s what I call  on this blog a “faithful rebel.” She grew up Methodist but her fury with the traditional church’s treatment of women led her to find spiritual community with the Quakers. Friends commented, “You make your life with sound and yet you go to a silent community!” She laughs as she’s telling me this, but then becomes serious. “We talk at the universe or God or the Light as Quakers would call it, but something really amazing happens when you are quiet long enough to hear.”

A_Permeable_Life_CoverIt’s hard to be quiet in a culture like ours where the impulse is to do more, be more, throw one more ball up in the air. Carrie challenges the assumption of “not enoughness” in her pie-life-philosophy and prophet-like-words in the new album and book (available for pre-order on her website). When we’re all scrambling to find a life of more, maybe the answer is to do less. “We expand time by actually being there,” Carrie tells me.

We’ve only been talking for forty minutes, but what she says is true; my breath is deeper than when we started.

 

 

 

 

I Believe

I believe there are some debts that we can never repay
And I believe there are some words that we can never unsay
And I don’t know a single soul
Who didn’t get lost along the way

I believe in socks and gloves
Knit out of soft great wool
And that there’s a place in heaven for those who teach in public schools
And I know I get some things right
But mostly I’m a fool

I believe in a good strong cup of ginger tea and that
All these chutes and roots will become a tree
All I know is I can’t help but see
All of this as so very… holy

I believe in jars of jelly put up by careful hands
And I believe most folks are doing just about the best they can
And I know there are some things that I will never understand

I believe there’s healing in the sound of your voice and that
A summer tomato is a cause to rejoice and that
Following a song was never really a choice and never really…

I believe in a good long letter written on real paper and with real pen
I believe in the ones I love and know will never see again
I believe in the kindness of strangers and the comfort of old brands
And when I close my eyes to sleep at night it’s good to say amen (amen)

I believe that life’s comprised of smiles and sniffles and tears
And in an old cook that’s still there, another good year
And I know that I get scared sometimes but all I need is here

I believe in a good strong cup of ginger tea and that
All these chutes and roots will become a tree
All I know is I can’t help but see
All of this as so very… holy

I believe…
I believe…
I believe…
I believe…
I believe…

carrie newcomer

 

Stonehenge: Facts & Theories About Mysterious Monument

By Owen Jarus, Live Science Contributor | September 15, 2014 12:59pm ET

A gloomy summer day at Stonehenge in southern England.

A gloomy summer day at Stonehenge in southern England

Stonehenge is an enigmatic prehistoric monument located on a chalky plain north of the modern-day city of Salisbury, England. It was started 5,000 years ago and modified by ancient Britons over a period of 1,000 years. Its purpose continues to be a mystery.

The biggest of its stones, known as sarsens, are up to 30 feet tall and weigh 25 tons on average. It is widely believed that they were brought from Marlborough Downs, a distance of 20 miles to the north. Smaller stones, referred to as “bluestones” (they have a bluish tinge when wet or freshly broken), weigh up to 4 tons and most of them appear to have come from the Preseli Hills in western Wales, a distance of 156 miles (250 km). It’s unknown how people in antiquity moved them that far; water transport was probably used for part of the journey. Scientists have raised the possibility that during the last ice age glaciers carried these bluestones closer to the Stonehenge area and the monument’s makers didn’t have to move them all the way from Wales.

Before Stonehenge:

Although construction of Stonehenge began about 5,000 years ago, the area appears to have been of symbolic importance for a much longer period of time.

As early as 10,500 years ago three large pine posts, which were totem poles of sorts, were erected at the site. Then around 5,500 years ago two earthworks known as Cursus monuments were erected, the longest of which ran for 1.8 miles. The purpose of these structures is unknown.

Construction of the monument:

No one knows why ancient people built Stonehenge, but it seems to have been arranged to face the midsummer sunrise and midwinter sunset.  Credit: Pete Strasser|nasa.gov

The building of Stonehenge started about 5,000 years ago with the creation of an earthwork enclosure. The presence of post holes suggests that either bluestones or upright timber posts were propped up on the site. In addition, archaeologists have found numerous cremation burials dating to this time and the centuries that followed. Recent research suggests that up to 240 people were buried in total, making Stonehenge the large Neolithic burial site in Britain.

Around 4,600 years ago construction ramped up with the erection of dozens of bluestones in a double circle at the site. This monument was not to last and by 4,400 years ago it had been replaced by something far grander.

The new structure had a series of sarsen stones erected in the shape of a horseshoe, with every pair of these huge stones having a stone lintel connecting them. In turn, a ring of sarsens surrounded this horseshoe, their tops connecting to each other, giving the appearance of a giant interconnected stone circle surrounding the horseshoe.

By 4,300 years ago this monument had been expanded to include the addition of two bluestone rings, one inside the horseshoe and another between the horseshoe and the outer layer of interconnected sarsen stones.

This would be the end of major construction at Stonehenge. As time went on the monument fell into neglect and disuse, some of its stones fell over while other were taken away.

A Walk Through Stonehenge

Significance to its makers:

Stonehenge at sunrise.  Credit: Simon Wyatt

There are numerous theories as to why Stonehenge was built. At the time it was made, people in the area were herders and farmers. They left no written records behind.

An “avenue” connecting Stonehenge with the River Aven is aligned with the solstice. In addition, research at the nearby ancient settlement of Durrington Walls, a site that also contains a series of wooden pillars, shows that pigs at the site were slaughtered in December and January, suggesting that the winter solstice was marked at Stonehenge.

The burials at Stonehenge offer another clue. Recent research indicates that the burials took place from its beginning, around 5,000 years ago, to its high point when the sarsen stones were set down. Among the burial goods is a mace head, an item historically associated with elite members of society. This discovery raises the question whether the people buried at the monument were local leaders and Stonehenge, in some way, commemorated them.

In 2014, scientists unveiled the results of a four-year survey of the landscape around Stonehenge. Using non-invasive techniques like ground-penetrating radar, the researchers detected signs of at least 17 previously unknown satellite shrines. People may have traveled considerable distances to come to Stonehenge, project leader Vincent Gaffney, an archaeologist at the University of Birmingham in the U.K., told Live Science. “It’s part of a much more complex landscape with processional and ritual activities that go around it.”

A Monument of Unification:

One new theory about Stonehenge, released in 2012 by members of the Stonehenge Riverside Project, is that Stonehenge marks the “unification of Britain,” a point when people across the island worked together and used a similar style of houses, pottery and other items.

It would explain why they were able to bring bluestones all the way from west Wales and how the labor and resources for the construction were marshaled.

In a news release, professor Mike Parker Pearson of the University of Sheffield said that “this was very different to the regionalism of previous centuries. Stonehenge itself was a massive undertaking, requiring the labour of thousands to move stones from as far away as west Wales, shaping them and erecting them. Just the work itself, requiring everyone literally to pull together, would have been an act of unification.”

Other work in acoustic archaeology, using Maryhill (which was built in the state of Washington to replicate Stonehenge) as a stand in for the now derelict Stonehenge, indicates the original structure created an environment similar to a lecture hall, with diffuse sound waves carrying sound throughout the monument and reverberation extending sounds by close to 1 second:

MysteryQuest – Stonehenge
Aired at 02:01 AM on Thursday, Dec 03, 2009 (12/3/2009)

A leading archaeologist and a research team traveled to Stonehenge to investigate the remains of humans buried there and also to investigate what the structure and arrangement of the ancient stonework reveals about prehistoric rituals at the site. Research, based on current technology, suggests that annual rituals conducted at Stonehenge would have been very effective in inducing trance among those who participated.

Research has shown that repetitive drumbeats can lower the brain wave frequencies. In these states, there may be a sense of presence associated with the awareness of spirits. Brain imaging research shows that sound alone can create altered states of consciousness.

What can make sound so powerful in a kind of ritualistic setting is that it can be very repetitious and rhythmic. The regularity of that helps to entrain the human mind so that we fall in sync with the music.

Ancient instruments have been re-created to replicate possible prehistoric rituals inside the circle, ceremonies that may have helped the ancient people believe dead spirits were present. People thousands of years ago lived in an oral culture, so oral from their mouths and aural from their ears. They didn’t live in a written culture and the culture rituals were passed on through speaking and listening.

Stonehenge is remarkable for the stones themselves: on one side, they’re quite rough. The other side is curved, and they’re curved in a way that seems only to have acoustic properties. And the circular arrangement creates a powerful echo that repeats and can actually change rhythms played inside the circle.

Here is a description of the research team in action:

00:03:56 He (the researcher) is using replicas of 4,500-year-old drums discovered by archaeologists in europe.
00:04:04 A highly sensitive multidirectional microphone and digital audio recorder will measure the response of the space.
00:04:11 >> These ones have decoration inside the foot, which would imply somehow someone has got to see it, maybe on a shoulder.
00:04:19 [drum beating] >> Very faint, but there’s an echo there.
00:04:25 >> It does sound different over there to over here, doesn’t it?
00:04:28 It’s astonishing.
00:04:29 Do you want to try it over here by what would have been the altar?
00:04:32 >> narrator: THE TEAM MOVES To where the main altar once stood.
00:04:36 [drum beating] >> Yeah.
00:04:43 >> There was a real patter echo off that.
00:04:45 We didn’t get that before.
00:04:46 >> You’ll keep going?
00:04:47 >> Yeah, absolutely.
00:04:48 >> You start. I’ll join in.
00:04:50 [drums pounding] There it is.
00:04:59 Can you hear it?
00:05:00 Stay there.
00:05:01 Try and play in time to it.
00:05:09 >> narrator: WHEN TILL AND WYATT Play at a certain speed, it sounds like the stones are playing the drumbeats back to the drummers.
00:05:17 >> It’s amazing, the echo.
00:05:19 You can hear the echo really clearly, can’t you?
00:05:20 Can you hear that pattering, that “taka-taka-taka”?
00:05:22 Once we started playing the repeated rhythm, the space seemed to interact with that and immediately build up.
00:05:30 >> narrator: THE TEAM MEASURES The frequency at which they are getting echoes from the stones.
00:05:35 >> We’re exciting this very low mode of vibration, this frequency, that you can’t hear unless you play it at the right speed.
00:05:42 So what happens is, once you start playing about the right speed, you start to hear these frequencies.
00:05:47 See, that’s about ten hertz.
00:05:49 That frequency is about the same frequency that alpha waves go at.
00:05:53 >> narrator: THE DRUMS ARE Playing at exactly the sound frequency needed to produce alpha waves in the human brain.
00:06:00 >> Alpha waves are one of the sorts of rhythms that the brain seems to fall into during times of relaxation.
00:06:10 Exposing people to rhythmic sounds can begin to put them into that kind of meditative state.
00:06:17 >> narrator: BY CREATING Alpha waves, repetitive drumbeats can actually create an altered state of mind.
00:06:24 >> Did you find yourself losing it?
00:06:25 I found myself drifting off, and then I started thinking, ” >> narrator: SOUND IS NOT The only clue to what went on at stonehenge.
00:06:39 Bones buried at the site may reveal a sinister story.
00:10:41 >> narrator:MYSTERY QUEST Is in england trying to unlock the secrets of one of the most famous mysteries in the world: Stonehenge.
00:10:55 Historians believe construction began at stonehenge as early as 3100 b.c.
00:11:02 But it continued for over 1,400 years as the monument was adapted and passed down from generation to generation.
00:11:14 It started off as a circular earthwork and ditch.
00:11:17 >> The first stones arrive– well, there’s a lot of argument about this at the moment– probably sometime around 2700 or 2600 b.c.
00:11:28 That’s the bluestones.
00:11:29 The bluestones are the first stones on-site.
00:11:33 >> narrator: STRANGELY, Bluestones originate more than 140 miles away at the preseli hills in Wales.
00:11:41 >> The people who built stonehenge must have been doing so for purposes that seemed very, very important to them at the time.
00:11:49 It was always a literally monumental undertaking.
00:11:53 A lot of the big stones come from wales, so transporting those for people who didn’t have the wheel has to have been an unbelievably difficult undertaking.
00:12:09 >> narrator: AROUND 2500 B.C., The bluestones were rearranged, and the larger sandstones were placed in a circle around them.
00:12:19 >> The really significant thing is that those stones are shaped.
00:12:22 They’re jointed together with these sort of mortise and tenon joints.
00:12:26 Each upright has protruding sort of knobs on the top of it that fit into hollows.
00:12:33 It looks like carpentry joints, but here they’ve done it in this very, very hard stone.
00:12:40 >> narrator: AMAZINGLY, 4,500 Years ago, the people who built stonehenge were applying carpentry skills to 40-ton boulders.
00:12:56 The monument appears to have been mysteriously abandoned sometime after 1000 b.c.
00:13:04 This prehistoric feat of engineering has baffled mankind for generations.
00:13:11 In the early middle ages, it was believed that the legendary wizard merlin built stonehenge with the help of giants.
00:13:20 In the 17th century, it was thought to be a roman temple dedicated to the gods of the sky.
00:13:29 But the first concrete clue was discovered in the 20th century when archaeologists realized the position of the sun dictated the monument’s orientation.
00:13:40 >> It clearly is aligned on the midsummer solstice and the midwinter solstice, the longest and the shortest days of the year.
00:13:52 >> narrator: WHEN STONEHENGE Was built, the ancient people of britain were beginning to live in larger communities, farming the land.
00:14:01 They relied on the seasons and marked their passing at stonehenge.
00:14:11 In 2005, an archaeologist named mike parker pearson made an astounding find a short distance from the site, one that shed further light on ancient seasonal rituals here.
00:14:22 >> At a village site that was in operation about the same time that one of the big building phases was going on at stonehenge, they found masses and masses of pig bones.
00:14:35 >> narrator: ANALYSIS OF The bones showed that they date to approximately 2600 b.c.
00:14:41 All the pigs were of a similar age and killed at the same time of year: Around the time of the winter solstice, a few days before our modern-day christmas.
00:14:54 >> It’s just the sheer quantity of pig bones that have been found there.
00:14:59 It looks like feasting.
00:15:06 >> narrator: AT THE STONE CIRCLE Itself, even more sinister clues were unearthed: Human bones, hundreds of them, primitively burned and buried.
00:15:18 >> The first analysis of all the cremated bones that were found at stonehenge suggests that it’s mainly adult males, adult men, that were buried there.
00:15:30 So it’s quite a distinctive group of people, and only probably very important people came there to be buried.
00:15:37 >> narrator: THE BONES WERE Dated across 1,000 years of prehistory, leading some experts to suggest that rituals here may have been organized to honor the dead of an ancient ruling dynasty.
00:15:50 But what were these rituals?
00:15:56 One full skeleton discovered at the site could provide clues.
00:16:01 >> There is a burial in the ditch: The man who’s known as the stonehenge archer.
00:16:07 This man was found at stonehenge quite close to the entrance.
00:16:11 He was buried with his stone wrist guard and a quiver of arrows.
00:16:16 The assumption was that he was an archer, but then somebody looked very closely at the arrowheads and realized that a lot have got their tips missing, and some of the tips are actually embedded in his bones.
00:16:31 So the arrows weren’t something that was put in his grave as grave goods.
00:16:35 They were actually the cause of his death.
00:16:40 >> narrator: THE ARCHER WAS SHOT With at least five arrows and buried in the most sacred monument of his time.
00:16:47 >> To me, the most informative of the bones in this person’s body is this one.
00:16:53 And this has got damage from a flint-tipped arrow, but it’s not on the outside.
00:16:58 It’s from the other side.
00:17:00 So what this means, this little tiny mark here, is that this man was shot from behind with an arrow that went right through his body cavity and lodged in the back of his breastbone.
00:17:12 >> narrator: THE EVIDENCE POINTS To the possibility of human sacrifice.
00:17:17 >> I can’t believe that he was simply a murder victim, because you would not bury somebody in the ditch at stonehenge if you just happened to kill them.
00:17:24 So he must have been somebody important.
00:17:28 >> narrator: THE SCIENCE TEAM Has devised a test that could reveal the archer’s true fate.
00:17:39 Barry keegan is a primitive technologies expert.
00:17:42 He makes prehistoric and ancient bows and flint-tipped arrows and is also an accomplished archer.
00:17:50 >> In prehistoric or ancient times, bows and arrows were certainly a part of daily life, an extension of oneself.
00:17:57 >> narrator: IF THE STONEHENGE Archer was a sacrifice, he would have been shot at close range.
00:18:03 For his test, keegan will fire at this bone from progressively closer distances and try to replicate the scarring found on the stonehenge archer’s breastbone.
00:18:17 The first shot is from 50 feet.
00:18:20 >> Doubt that it’s going to do much damage to the bone at this point.
00:18:35 [bow snaps] Hey, I think I hit it.
00:18:38 >> narrator: AND KEEGAN IS Right.
00:18:41 The arrow causes little damage from 50 feet.
00:18:44 >> The closer we get, the more damage it’s going to do.
00:18:48 >> narrator: THE NEXT SHOT ..
00:18:54 [bow snaps] >> That definitely hit.
00:19:05 >> narrator: 30 FEET…
00:19:08 [bow snaps] >> It looks like it broke in a couple of places.
00:19:14 >> narrator: AND FINALLY, At 20 feet.
00:19:17 [bow snaps] >> Wow, there is nothing left of that tip.
00:19:26 Wow, yeah, there’s a nice deep mark right there.
00:19:29 Yeah, right there.
00:19:30 This nick looks very much like the nick in the stonehenge archer’s sternum.
00:19:34 This is the shot from 40 feet, and this is the shot from 20 feet.
00:19:38 The flint arrowhead was probably better than anything else that was used.
00:19:42 It had the cutting ability.
00:19:43 It slices very much like a steak knife.
00:19:46 At 20 feet, the power of the arrow is certainly enough to do the kill.
00:19:50 Definitely not an accident.
00:19:52 >> narrator: THAT IS ABOUT The same distance between shooter and victim in a modern-day firing squad.
00:19:59 And there is further evidence to suggest this was an intentional killing.
00:20:04 >> If you look very carefully at the bones themselves and also the angle that some of the arrows have gone into them, what you realize is that he must have been lying almost flat on the ground.
00:20:16 If somebody’s standing upright, you cannot shoot an arrow into them at that angle.
00:20:21 It just doesn’t work.
00:20:28 >> narrator: THE EXPEDITION TEAM Has been investigating the theory that stonehenge was a temple used to commune with the dead.
00:20:36 But only around 40% of the original stones are still standing.
00:20:41 >> The difficulty with the stones being down is, it’s like trying to measure a cathedral’s acoustics when you’ve knocked the thing down.
00:20:49 There should be some of the same effects, but it’s not the same.
00:20:54 >> narrator: THE TEAM NEEDS TO Test the sound in stonehenge as if the site was still intact.
00:21:03 And there is a place to do this.
00:21:07 >> You could hear them starting to resonate one at a time.
00:24:40 >> narrator:MYSTERY QUEST Is investigating whether stonehenge could have been a temple for communicating with the dead.
00:24:50 The circle is missing many of its stones, but there is a full-size reproduction of the original intact monument.
00:25:01 It stands next to the columbia river in maryhill, washington.
00:25:08 Native son sam hill built it as his monument to the war dead from world war i.
00:25:14 It is the best approximation of what stonehenge would have looked like 4,500 years ago.
00:25:23 The team’s theory is that ceremonial drumming at stonehenge could have induced a trance in ancient humans, one that could have helped them believe dead spirits were present.
00:25:38 In many cultures, trance is used for the same purpose.
00:25:44 Voodoo rituals in haiti and parts of africa rely heavily on repetitive drumming to induce a trance.
00:25:51 In this state, participants believe that they become possessed by gods and can talk to the dead.
00:25:59 Experts now believe that drums are key in creating a mind-altered state.
00:26:05 >> The reason for that seems to be this general phenomenon of what is called entrainment.
00:26:10 When people are exposed to certain rhythmic stimuli, their brains drop into sync with that pattern.
00:26:18 That seems to be one of the reasons why they help people drop into meditative states.
00:26:24 If stonehenge really is a place where you’re getting the right kind of acoustic boosting, the echoes might have taken on a very unusual property.
00:26:38 >> narrator: THE TEAM BELIEVES That stonehenge may have amplified the drum rhythms, enhancing their effect on the human brain.
00:26:45 >> No one’s heard what stonehenge really sounded like for at least 3,000 years because it’s not been complete.
00:26:50 So we can hear what it sounded like and know how it would have felt to be in there.
00:27:00 So this is our dodie.
00:27:02 It’s a dodecahedron, a special speaker for acoustic measurements.
00:27:06 It’s got 12 sides, 12 speakers.
00:27:09 It sends sound in every direction.
00:27:14 This is the sound card.
00:27:15 This is going to communicate with the computer.
00:27:17 That then gets sent to the low-frequency speaker, and the high frequency gets sent to the dodie.
00:27:25 >> We’re going to play one sound at a time– one frequency, one note– and try and find the frequencies where things resonate and see if we can make the place ring like a wine glass.
00:27:39 >> narrator: IF THE TEAM Can find the point at which the space begins to vibrate with sound, or resonate, they will be able to create a drum track that may induce trance.
00:27:49 >> So this is the first mode.
00:27:51 [low-pitched frequency] >> narrator: THEY SWEEP THROUGH The different sound frequencies, called modes.
00:28:06 The first three modes do not produce the effect they are looking for.
00:28:13 >> That should be mode number four.
00:28:17 >> narrator: BUT AT MODE Number four, there is something different.
00:28:24 >> Volume at the center?
00:28:28 >> 92.5.
00:28:30 >> All right, just move on to the next one.
00:28:37 It’s just amazing.
00:28:39 So that’s 4.3 meters away.
00:28:42 61.
00:28:43 >> Okay.
00:28:47 >> So here I’ve moved maybe a meter away, and we’re at 75 decibels.
00:28:54 So it’s doubled in volume just by moving a meter.
00:28:56 Instead of getting quieter, it’s getting louder.
00:29:01 ..
00:29:05 >> narrator: THE SOUND DOESN’T Seem to decrease in volume the further you get from the speakers.
00:29:12 This is a sectional look at how this sound is traveling from the center of the circle to the edge.
00:29:18 The peaks show where sound is loudest and the valleys where the sound is distinctly quieter.
00:29:25 >> The sound seems almost magically to be carried across the space.
00:29:29 It moves around the space in a really unusual way.
00:29:37 [dramatic music] ♪ ♪
00:29:42 >> narrator: TO UNDERSTAND HOW Sound at stonehenge can affect the human brain, the science team will conduct an experiment using a brain imaging system , magnetoencephalography.
00:29:54 It measures the magnetic fields produced by electrical activity in the brain.
00:30:04 David poeppel a neuroscientist and one of the leading experts on how the brain processes sound.
00:30:10 >> Magnetoencephalography is particularly exciting because it’s so well suited to study hearing.
00:30:16 This is a machine that has 160 sensors placed all around your head, and then we play you auditory materials or visual materials, and we record your brain activity while you’re in there lying on your back surrounded by 160 tiny little sensors recording from your brain.
00:30:35 >> narrator: POEPPEL WILL PLAY Two sets of sounds to a 42-year-old male subject.
00:30:41 >> One kind of sound is crafted to simulate what may have been heard at stonehenge.
00:30:49 The hypothesis is that this particular kind of rhythm– that’s timing– and that reverberation will have a special effect.
00:30:58 >> narrator: FOR COMPARISON, The other sound is generic traffic noise.
00:31:02 [horns honking] >> All rightso we’re ready to play the sounds.
00:31:16 First the stonehenge reverb sound.
00:31:20 [percussive knocking] Okay.
00:31:29 And the traffic noise for comparison.
00:31:35 [horns honking] >> Okay, wayne, were you able to hear those sounds okay?
00:31:41 >> I can hear them fine, yes.
00:31:46 >> narrator: POEPPEL PLAYS The subject each sound 50 times.
00:31:51 He uses a map of the brain and an activity response graph to measure the reaction.
00:31:58 >> As soon as he hears the first traffic beep or the first stonehenge boom, the brain response is being recorded almost with no delays, about 1/10 of a second.
00:32:08 That’s roughly the speed of the brain as it responds to sounds.
00:32:12 And the top panel are the stonehenge sounds; bottom panel, street sounds.
00:32:17 You see these three waves of activation to the street sounds: Big and then down and big and then down and big and then down.
00:32:25 You don’t see that to the stonehenge sounds.
00:32:28 In the stonehenge sound, you have this regularity, right?
00:32:31 So you have the boom, boom, boom, the rhythm, so that regularity is in fact reflected in the brain response.
00:32:39 >> narrator: THE TRAFFIC NOISES Cause the subject to work hard to interpret the varied sounds.
00:32:45 They produce more brain activity.
00:32:51 When the subject listens to the stonehenge sounds, his brain adjusts its own rhythms to mirror the drumbeats.
00:33:01 >> That regularity is in fact reflected in the brain response.
00:33:04 This is the entrainment.
00:33:05 It suggests why the stonehenge type of sound makes you more relaxed or is more inducing to trance.
00:33:17 >> narrator: AT THE EXPEDITION Site, the team is about to re-create the ancient sounds of stonehenge.
00:33:23 [low rumbling tone] >> Can you hear the effect?
00:33:31 >> Yeah, absolutely.
00:33:32 It’s pretty amazing, really.

The most beautiful thing we can experience is the mysterious.
It is the source of all true art and all science. He to whom this emotion is a stranger, who can no longer pause to wonder, or stand rapt in awe, is as good as dead. His eyes are closed. — Albert Einstein

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Joan of Arc

I know this now. Every man gives his life for what he believes. Every woman gives her life for what she believes. Sometimes people believe in little or nothing yet they give their lives to that little or nothing. One life is all we have and we live it as we believe in living it. And then it is gone. But to sacrifice what you are and live without belief, that's more terrible than dying.--

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Beannacht

On the day when
the weight deadens
on your shoulders
and you stumble,
may the clay dance
to balance you.

And when your eyes
freeze behind
the grey window
and the ghost of loss
gets in to you,
may a flock of colours,
indigo, red, green,
and azure blue
come to awaken in you
a meadow of delight.

When the canvas frays
in the currach of thought
and a stain of ocean
blackens beneath you,
may there come across the waters
a path of yellow moonlight
to bring you safely home.

May the nourishment of the earth be yours,
may the clarity of light be yours,
may the fluency of the ocean be yours,
may the protection of the ancestors be yours.
And so may a slow
wind work these words
of love around you,
an invisible cloak
to mind your life.

John O'Donohue, Echoes of Memory

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